SECTION 1 Questions 1-14
Read the text and answer Questions 1-7

Water Footprint

Water is the basis of life, and on this planet only a tiny share, less than one percent of all water, is available for nearly 7 billion people and a myriad of freshwater aquatic ecosystems. It's that tiny share of freshwater that we have to use to meet all of our needs: irrigation, industry, drinking water, and sanitation, and the needs of thousands, if not millions, of other species that we share the planet with.
The average American lifestyle demands 1,800 gallons a day to support, with 70 percent of that going to support our diets. If each of us learned how to conserve just a little more water, it could add up to big savings. National Geographic's Freshwater Fellow, Sandra Postel, thinks you should start with these simple changes:
A Choose outdoor landscaping appropriate for your climate. Native plants and grasses that thrive on natural rainfall only are best. (Read more in National Geographic Green Guide's "Plants That Will Suck Your Yard Dry.")
B Install low-flow showerheads and faucet aerators. Because you’re saving hot water, you’ll also reduce your energy bill. (More at "Bathroom Revamp: Savings by the Gallon.")
C If you’re in the market for a toilet, buy a low-volume, ultra low-volume, or dual-flush model. (Read Green Guide's "Toilet Buying Guide.")
D Fix leaky faucets. All those wasted drops add up - sometimes to 10-25 gallons a day. (Learn more on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's, or EPA's, WaterSense website.)
E Run your dishwasher and washing machine only when full. When it’s time to replace them, buy a water- and energy-efficient model. Remember, saving water saves energy, and saving energy saves water. (Read Green Guide's "Dishwasher Buying Guide.")
F Eat a bit less meat, especially beef. A typical hamburger can take 630 gallons to produce. (Learn more about the water embedded in your food with National Geographic's "The Hidden Water We Use" interactive.)
G Buy less stuff. Everything takes water to make. So if we buy less, we shrink our water footprint.
H Recycle plastics, glass, metals, and paper. Buy re-usable products rather than throw-away, as it takes water to make most everything.
I  Turn off the tap while brushing your teeth and washing the dishes. Shave a minute or two off your shower time. Millions of people doing even the little things makes a difference.
J  Know the source of your drinking water: the river, lake, or aquifer that supplies your home. Once you know it, you’ll care about it. You just won’t want to waste water. (Find out more about your water sources with the EPA's "Surf Your Watershed" interactive.)




Read the text and answer Questions 8-14

How To Shop Green

Considering "going green"? You're probably not the only one.
Enter almost any grocery store and you're bound to find so-called green cleaning products next to traditional ones. Take Tide Cold Water detergent. Procter & Gamble claims it deep cleans clothes in cold water, cutting down on your energy use, not to mention your energy bill. Car buyers have plenty of environmentally friendly models from which to choose, and energy-efficient appliances get prominent placement on showroom floors. Even retailers are getting in on the act. Sweden-based fashion emporium H&M introduced a green line in spring 2007, offering frocks and tops made with organic cotton.
But while an ever-growing range of "green" consumer products are finding their way into our homes, there is very little in the way of industry standard. One manufacturer's green product may have been produced in an entirely different manner than another's. As a result, experts say it's good to maintain a healthy dose of skepticism when choosing environmentally friendly products, and to rely on a select group of organizations monitoring the practices of certain industries.
Do Your Homework
Dig a bit and you'll likely come across the word "greenwashing." This, according to Julia Cosgrove, deputy editor of ReadyMade, a San Francisco-based magazine that focuses on do-it-yourself, sustainable projects, entails marketing a product as environmentally conscious without enough evidence that it really is. "Much of what we're seeing now is just spin," she says. "When you look further, many of these companies are still making a big environmental footprint." Translation: Even if a retailer offers clothes made with organic cotton, chances are they are being shipped via huge, gas-sucking airplanes.
Another example is vinyl. It is used in a great deal of vegan shoes, but the production of the material can create dioxin, a known carcinogen. Clothing company Edun has experienced a case of greenwashing. Although some of its products are made of organic cotton, the company's main objective is to produce ethical (fairly traded, socially responsible) - not green - clothing. Although both concepts are positive, they certainly don't mean the same thing. Edun is an ethical clothing company, and although they take measures to protect the environment, they should not be categorized as green. How to tell one from the other? Look to several watchdog organizations for a real education.
Digging Deeper
Netherlands-based Made-By tracks a garment's environmental footprint from the first thread on, and the International Forest Stewardship Alliance certifies wood-made products by ensuring that manufacturers collecting lumber are making the best use of forest resources, reducing damage and waste, and avoiding overconsumption and overharvesting. You can find a complete listing of their findings on
The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) labeling system, Design For The Environment (DfE), ensures that the chemicals in DfE-certified products--like Earth Choice's new range of household cleaners--are environmentally preferable, which means such products are created with lower volatile organic compounds. High levels of these materials can damage soil and groundwater, and emit greenhouse gasses, contributing to global warming.
Kitchen appliances now possess one of the most widely recognized labels, EnergyStar, another EPA-run unit. These labels ensure an appliance meets energy-efficient guidelines set by the EPA and the Department of Energy. Criteria for each appliance differs and can be found on under the Products tab.
"It's a fairly well-known metric that will reduce your energy use and save you money," says Ron Jones, founder of Greenbuilder, a development, media and consulting firm dedicated to sustainable development and green building, of EnergyStar. Often, buying a new, energy-saving air conditioner will save you in the end since older models not only cost more to run but often don't work as well.
Whether you're buying one piece of green clothing or remodeling your entire home with energy-efficient appliances, Jones says it's important to note how your everyday activities affect the environment.
"If you start to look at a person in terms of their individual footprint, which includes their transportation habits, eating habits, clothing and housing, it starts to get very complex," he says. "Think through everything. Determine how it will affect your everyday living conditions, and your quality of life going forward." 

SECTION 2 Questions 15-27
Read the text and answer Questions 15-21

Recycling Procedure

How to Do It
Put like materials into paper or plastic bags and put the bags into your FREE RECYCLING BIN.
The bin should be placed out for collection, each week, with your regular trash. There is no extra charge for recycling pick-up for those who hire a trash hauler.
FOR MORE INFORMATION call Committee Chairman Mark Magee, 354-8838 or E-mail him at Phone Waldoboro Transfer Station at 832-7850 for first hand information.
Effective January 1, 2005, householders became subject to mercury-containing product disposal rules previously applying only to businesses and manufacturers.
The Waldoboro Transfer Station (WTS) accepts any mercury containing items, such as THERMOMETERS, THERMOSTATS, etc. so long as they are not broken. There is no drop-off fee, at this time.
1. Corrugated cardboard and brown bags. Remove styrofoam inserts and dispose with regular trash.
2. Mixed Paper: Junk mail (opened or unopened), greeting cards and gift wrap(no glitter or foil), calendars, brochures, post-it-notes, cereal boxes with the inner liner bag removed, egg cartons, shoe boxes, paperback books, hardcover is not acceptable, but NCR carbonless paper is.
3. Glass Bottles and Jars: Clear, green and brown glass. Rinse and remove lids but labels may stay on. Not Acceptable: mirrored, Pyrex, auto glass, ceramics, light bulbs and broken glass.
4. Tin Cans and Aluminum: Tin and aluminum may be mixed. Labels may stay on, but rinse and flatten cans, if possible. Foil and pie plates should be clean. Metal jar lids with rubber gaskets are recycleable. For safety reasons, only empty aerosol cans are accepted.
5. HDPE plastic: Separate the milk and juice containers from other #2 plastic such as soap and detergent containers, discard the lids because they are not #2 plastic, rinse and flatten. Motor oil containers are not acceptable.
6. Motor oil should be taken to Prior's garage in Cushing for burning in the waste oil furnace.
7. Usable Clothing is accepted, but not rags. Mark bag "useable clothing."
Special Handling
1. Spent Batteries: Place in a clear bag or label, so collector will know they are there.
2. Old Paint: Leave empty cans open until contents are dry. Cover partial or full cans tightly. Place cans so they are visible to the collector.
3. Children's Shoes that Light up: Identify as mercury-containing shoes and enclose in clear bag.
4. Fluorescent Bulbs can no longer be accepted by any trash hauler. But, you may drop off unbroken bulbs yourself at WTS, without a fee. The black starter boxes found in flourescent fixtures may contain PCB's and should also be deliverd there. They will be recycled appropriately
5. Beginning in January 2006 all TV and computer monitors must be recycled. Presently, only Reliable Computers, in Rockport, sets aside a certain time to recycle them for a small fee. WTS accepts TV and computer monitors at anytime, but they are simply dumped into the trash hopper. Please make an effort to appropriately recycle your old TVs and Computer Monitors.




Read the text and answer Questions 22 - 27

Things You Can Do To Protect Wildlife

It is often easy to feel overwhelmed in the face of species loss and habitat destruction. The problem is large and complex-it's common for individuals to feel powerless. Yet, everything we do is vitally important. We may only do a little bit in the grand scheme of things, but together our seemingly small actions add up to a lot.
1. Protect Wildlife Habitat
Perhaps the greatest threat that faces many species is the widespread destruction of habitat. Deforestation, farming, over-grazing and development all result in irreversible changes-soil compaction, erosion, desertification, and alteration of local climatic conditions. Such land use practices vastly alter or even eliminate wildlife habitat. In areas where rare species are present, habitat destruction can quickly force a species to extinction. By protecting habitat, entire communities of animals can be protected together and when communities are kept intact, less conservation intervention is required to ensure species survival.Parks, reserves, and other protected lands are too often the only habitats left untouched by habitat destruction.
2. loin a Conservation Organization
There is a wide range of conservation organizations working to protect endangered animals and habitats. Different organizations have different objectives-some work to protect a small plot of land or to protect whales, others focus on establishing good environmental policies in local government. If you have a specific area of interest, you can often find an organization that is working to protect the species or habitats you're most concerned about. By joining in, you can support well-organized, ongoing efforts to protect species and habitats. And if you want to participate in conservation field work, you can often get involved in specific programs within many conservation organizations that rely to a great extent on help from volunteers.
3. Reduce the Threat of Invasive Species
The spread of non-native species has greatly impacted native populations around the world. Invasive species compete with native species for resources and habitat. They can even prey on native species directly, forcing native species towards extinction. Another way to reduce the threat of invasive species is to incorporate native plants in your garden and to welcome native animals into your yard.
4. Recycle and Reduce Energy and Goods Consumption
By recycling and (reusing as much as we can, we reduce our impact on the environment. Additionally, by reducing the energy we consume, we take a little of the burden off our natural resources (and our pocketbooks). You can also reduce your carbon footprint by first calculating your current carbon footprint and then reduce the amount of carbon you consume.
5. Minimize use of Herbicides and Pesticides
Herbicides and pesticides may keep yards looking nice but they are in fact hazardous pollutants that affect wildlife at many levels. Many herbicides and pesticides take a long time to degrade and build up in the soils or throughout the food chain. Some groups of animals such as amphibians are particularly vulnerable to these chemical pollutants and suffer greatly as a result of the high levels of herbicides and pesticides in their habitat.
6. Place Decals on Windows to Deter Bird Collisions
Daniel Klem Jr. of Muhlenberg College has estimated that as many as one billion birds in the United States die each year due to collisions with windows. You can help reduce the number of collisions simply by placing decals on the windows in your home and office. Other simple steps you can take to reduce the likelihood of collisions are to re-evaluate feeder placement, draw shades and curtains during brightest parts of day, install tinted window glass, and put screens on outside of windows.
7. Slow Down When Driving
Many native animals have to live in developed areas and this means they must navigate a landscape full of human hazards. One of the biggest obstacles to wildlife living in developed areas is that created by roads. Roads divide habitat and present a constant hazard to any animal attempting to cross from one side to the other. So when you're out and about, slow down and keep an eye out for wildlife.
8. Voice Your Concerns and Get Involved Locally
By letting local and national governments know that you're concerned about endangered species, you're increasing the likelihood that someone will do something about it. 


SECTION 3 Questions 28-40
Read the text and answer Questions 28-40

Ecosystems can fight back

A Conventional wisdom is often a poor guide. For one thing it suggests that human damage to the world’s species, habitats and ecosystems is terminal: that when things are lost, they are lost for ever. But oil spills of the sort that now threaten the Timor Sea, forest fires like those that recently afflicted Greece, and other man-made and man-assisted threats to wildlife are transient. Except in those cases in which a species is driven to extinction, the Earths ability to shrug such things off is often underestimated.
B Alan Weisman shows this in his book, “The World Without Us”, which illustrates natures great capacity to recover. Have mankind abducted by aliens or wiped out by some Homo sapiens-specific virus, and nature, Mr Weisman reckons, would reclaim its territory with surprising speed, as weeds colonised pavements, rivers flooded subway tunnels and buildings burst as they were played like concertinas by a cycle of freezing and thawing. By Mr Weisman’s reckoning, residential neighbourhoods would return to forest in 500 years and only the most stubborn of human inventions, such as certain plastics, would prove permanent.
C Mr Weisman’s conclusion was backed up earlier this year by a study published in the Public Library of Science by Holly Jones and Oswald Schmitz, of Yale’s School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. They used Web of Science, an online journal archive, to gather a set of 240 peer-reviewed scientific papers that measured recovery rates in large terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The data thus available included work on agriculture, deforestation, the introduction of invasive species, logging, mining, oil spills, overfishing and the damage done to seabeds by trawling, as well as, for comparison, naturally occurring disasters such as hurricanes.
D The pair measured 94 aspects of how ecosystems are put together, including the ways in which nutrients cycle within them, the rates at which decomposition takes place and the sizes of their plant and animal populations, so that they could classify whether, and how fast, an area had recovered. They found that 83 of the 240 papers demonstrated complete recovery, while 90 showed a mixed response. Only 67 showed no recovery at all and, as the authors explain, more would have recovered if the projects had continued for long enough to track the changes in ecosystems that respond more slowly, such as forests.
E Ecosystems exposed to more than one pressure, such as a forest that is first felled and then used for agriculture, took the longest to recover. Even in those cases, though, the average recovery time was, at 56 years, within a human lifetime. Sites that experienced single threats typically recovered in less than 20 years. The researchers found that recovery rates are influenced more by the type of ecosystem than by the magnitude of the damage inflicted upon it. Forests, for example, take longer to renew (42 years) than ocean floors (typically less than ten) regardless of the scale of the stresses inflicted on them.
F Some commentators are sceptical about such positive findings. They point out that, of necessity, the study’s retrospective methodology includes papers published before researchers were required to declare any competing interests. This may have allowed, for example, an oil company to produce a report that plays down the damage done by a spillage. But such biased individual reports would be unlikely to affect the overall findings of a large study like this one.
G Critics also question whether total ecological recovery really has been achieved as often as Ms Jones and Dr Schmitz suggest, and point to examples where it manifestly has not, such as the cod fishery of the Grand Banks, off the coast of Newfoundland, which collapsed in 1992. Almost two decades on, the cod show no sign of recovery, perhaps because new predators, such as dogfish, now dominate the waters.
H It is true, though, that the question of what is pristine or natural can be debatable. A good example of this, which Mr Weisman uses in his book, is Dartmoor, a national park in the south-west of England. Dartmoor is considered by many to be one of Britain’s great nature wildernesses. In fact, it is a human construction, formed by tens of thousands of years’ worth of alterations such as burning and agriculture. But it is in its current state, rather than as the forest it once was, that people wish to preserve it. Ms Jones and Dr Schmitz point out that most conservation work is not actually concerned with returning landscapes to their natural or prehuman states and “instead use contemporaneous reference systems as targets”.
I Despite their study’s limitations, and the difficulty of measuring recovery and choosing targets, Ms Jones’s and Dr Schmitz’s findings are good news for conservationists. But the final word of advice belongs to Mr Weisman as he invites people to ponder an alternative to his post-human future: “Since we’re imagining, why not dream of a way for nature to prosper that doesn’t depend on our demise?” 
Questions 1-7
Complete the sentences below.
Choose ONLY ONE WORD from the text for each answer.

Currently we can only use a very small of the total water supply.

The text has ten sections, A - J.
Which section contains the following information?

about washing up 

how much to buy 

bathroom habits 

finding out where your consumable water comes from 

buying a smaller sized product 

the types of plants you should buy  

Questions 8-14
Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.

In many car showrooms you can find
'green' cars on special offer 
'green cars' are easy to notice 
green' cars in short supply

These days like-for-like green products
are manufactured in very similar ways 
must meet the requirements of a 'standards' organisation 
could be produced very differently

Julia Cosgrove believes that
the majority of companies are producing genuinely green products 
many companies do not tell consumers the full story 
are doing the best they can to be greener

Made-By is able to monitor
the carbon footprint for the manufacture of clothes
the complete manufacturing process for all products
the carbon footprint for the early stage of clothes manufacture

Earth's Choice
is an environmental protection agency 
produces cleaning products 
is an EPA partner

Ron Jones thinks that
you should use your exisiting air-conditioner for as long as possible 
more modern air-conditoners will cost you less 
we should avoid using air-conditioners as much as possible

Jones also says that
we should all calculate our individual carbon footprint 
it is too difficult to calculate an individual's carbon footprint 
we need to be more aware of the carbon footprint we create

Questions 15-21
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the text?

TRUE - if the statement agrees with the information 
FALSE - if the statement contradicts the information 
NOT GIVEN - if there is no information on this

Your recycle bin should be put outside your house weekly along with the normal bin. 

The WTS will take products containing mercury in any condition.

Hard book covers should not be included in mixed paper waste.

Prior's offers a free disposal service for motor oil containers.

Paint cans should be covered if they are not completely empty.

All children's shoes should be disposed in a transparent bag.

Computer screens should be disposed in the same way as TVs.

Questions 22 - 27
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the text for each answer.

By protecting animal communities from harm, not so much  is necessary.

If you want to get involved in field work, many organisations accept  .

The problem with herbicides and pesticides is that they do not  quickly.

Thinking carefully about where you put your bird  can reduce collisions.

Animals have to cross roads which often  their living space.

People in  are more likely to act if they know you are concerned. 

Questions 28 - 40
The text has nine paragraphs, A -I.
Which paragraph contains the following information?

the main factor affecting recovery rates 

a picture of urban life taken over by nature 

examples of environmental damage caused by humans 

positive results from a study 

the kind of information gathered from scientific records  

Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS and/or a NUMBER from the text for each answer.

Approximate recovery time for ecosystems which experience no more than one pressure is .

Some critics claim the positive results may be influenced by some companies understating the they have caused.

The cod fishery of the Grand Banks is an example of where there has not been a complete .

Dartmoor was originally  .

Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN ONE WORD from the text for each answer.

Ms Jones and Dr Schmitz believe that people are more interested in preserving or returning () to a present-day condition rather than to their original (). However, despite the problems with () and recovery measurement, this latest study is a source of optimism for ().

Section 1

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